The School House in Ireland: Architecture and Meaning (contd…)
School house designs supplied by the OPW toward the end of the 19th century vary in form but maintain the same basic features; an entrance porch, a cloakroom, the classroom, tall sash windows, an open fireplace and high ceilings, wainscoting on the lower parts of the internal walls, a raised wooden floor, ventilation features etc. The architectural drawings were supplied and distributed by the OPW to locations around the country, and for this reason you can often find identical school buildings at opposite ends of the country. There were a variety of designs available through the decades, and it is often possible to date the construction of a school house to within a few years based on the form of the building.
Many of the school houses that were built ‘to-plan’ were extended and modified and many remain in use today. Often a modern school building will have an original 19th-century construction at its core. It is interesting that the many of the principle features of the early schools have been retained such as high ceilings and windows. These features reflect the ecclesiastical and monastic origins of school house design that persist to this very day. They also reflect the continuing control that Churches had on the school system.
Although there were architecturally elaborate school buildings (most often patronised by a local land owner), they more frequently comprised functional structures, usually lacking architectural ornamentation, and built to serve a small local population. Continue reading The School House in Ireland: Architecture and Meaning – Part 3→
The School House in Ireland: Architecture and Meaning (contd…)
What makes a building important?
Contemporary 19thand early 20th-century sources in Britain and the US (Bernard 1848; Patterson 1875; Shawkey 1910) provide, first-hand insights into the ideological and societal backgrounds behind school architecture of the period. In Britain Weiner (1994) dedicates significant wordcount to architecture and social reform in late-Victorian London from the perspective of school design, however it is part of an over-arching examination of the subject as a whole. Similarly, Avery (2003) presents a comprehensive overview of Victorian and Edwardian architecture in Britain which includes dedicated passages relating to school houses designed and constructed during this period. Both publications treat the physical and architectural environments in their historical contexts, offering a late-20th century perspective on the impact of Victorian and Edwardian reform on architecture. However, neither publication is concerned with the modern-day significance of these buildings to the modern-day populations which engages with them on a daily basis. To be fair to both publications, such a consideration is well beyond their assigned academic remit.
What is important to consider is that these and other studies have been primarily concerned with ‘Architectural Interest’ from all almost exclusively historical architectural perspective. They fail to draw upon or recognise the identical social significance of many similar buildings that have served the same institutional function, but were perhaps of a lesser intrinsic architectural value for a variety of reasons (date, originality of design etc.). Hence, these buildings have been overlooked. In defining a building to be of ‘Architectural Interest’, Historic England have condensed the general principles applied by the Secretary of State under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 (DCMS 2010) to this simple statement:
‘To be of special architectural interest a building must be of importance in its architectural design, decoration or craftsmanship; special interest may also apply to nationally important examples of particular building types and techniques (e.g. buildings displaying technological innovation or virtuosity) and significant plan forms.’ – Historic England 2017 Continue reading The School House in Ireland: Architecture and Meaning – Part 2→
Kilnaboy National School, Kilnaboy townland, Co. Clare
NGR: 127450, 191785
The Burren landscape of Co. Clare covers an area of about 360 km2 and forms a gently inclined plateau with at least 60% of the area being bare rock or rocky pasture. Where soil has gathered in shallow valleys, some parcels of land are under pasture, while un-grazed areas are often covered with dense hazel scrub.
Bounded to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north by Galway Bay, the area attracts thousands of visitors every year, drawn by the unique landscape which is renowned for its remarkable assemblage of plants and animals. Due to its sparse population, it is one of the best dark sky areas in Ireland, and it can feel quite isolated, particularly in winter when few tourists visit.
Over the past few years I’ve spent a good deal of time in the Burren, specifically around the village of Carron, and the large turlough, or seasonal lake that’s located there. Here, the landscape is rich in historical and archaeological sites with more than 90 megalithic burial monuments in the area. However lately I’ve been drawn to monuments of the more recent past, and the vernacular architecture of the past two centuries.
Travelling from Corofin toward Leamenah, you’ll pass the little village of Kilnaboy (any fan of the Father Ted TV series will know this as the location of Craggy Island Parochial House). The village is most notable for its imposing 11th century Church visible from the roadside, and so it’s quaint 18th/19th century streetscape is very often overlooked; In recent years, the former post office here has been turned into an exhibition space, aptly named ‘X-PO’. And close by you’ll find a former school house built in 1884 but now derelict and empty. It was of course this building that I came to see at the invitation of its present owner, PJ Curtis. Continue reading Kilnaboy National School, Kilnaboy townland, Co. Clare→
Drumbonniv National School, Drumbonniv townland, Co. Clare
NGR: 140469, 183557
The townland of Drumbonniv (sometimes spelled Drumbaniff) is situated in the parish of Crusheen in Co. Clare, not far from the towns of Gort and Ennis. It is a quiet, rural area which suffered from rural depopulation until recent years – in winter it can a particularly damp and cold landscape. The bare and harsh land is on the fringes of the Burren, with shallow soils and frequent limestone outcrop and hazel scrub. Small trees and shrubs that today encroach on the school house today provide some shelter from the elements.
The building that stands today dates to 1890 and comprises a detached, three-bay single storey, single classroom school house with a projecting entrance porch. It has a pitched roof with brickwork chimney stacks and plaster rendering. The plaster rendering is scored to give the impression that the building is constructed of cut-stone blocks. The walls are rubble built with the original sash windows still in place. A hole in the ceiling reveals the lattice and plaster-work construction in the roof – typical of school houses of this time.
Although much of the interior remains in a relatively good state of preservation, a large hole has recently been knocked in the gable end of the building to allow large machinery into the building. To the rear of the school stand the remnants of a stone built toilet block, now collapsed.